By Tim Lambert

C. 35,000 BC The Cro-Magnon people enter Europe

C. 9,000-8,000 BC Farming begins in the Middle East

C. 8,000 BC Jericho, the first walled town, is built

C. 6,500 BC

Catal Huyuk, a town in what is now Turkey flourishes

Farming begins in Northwest India

C. 6,000 BC

Farming spreads to Greece and later across Europe

Rice is cultivated in Thailand

C. 5,000 BC Farming begins in Egypt

C. 4,000 BC

Farming spreads to Northern Europe

The plough is invented in the Middle East

Bronze is used in the Middle East

C. 3,500 BC

The sail is invented in Egypt

The potters wheel is invented in Iraq

C. 3,300 BC Writing develops in Sumer and Egypt

C. 3,000 BC Bronze is used in Thailand

C. 2,500 BC

Farming begins in Peru

The Minoan Civilization arises on Crete

C. 2,000 BC

Bronze is used in Northern Europe and in China

The Hittite Civilization arises in what is now Turkey

C. 1.790 BC - 1,750 BC Hammurabi is king of Babylon

C. 1,700 BC The Indus Valley Civilization arises

C. 1,600 BC The Mycenaean Civilization in Greece arises

C. 1,200 BC

The Hittite Empire in Turkey collapses

The Olmec Civilisation in Mexico arises

C. 1,500 BC The Mycenaean Civilization in Greece breaks down

C. 1,000 BC

King David rules Israel

C. 900 BC

The Phoenicians flourish is what is now Lebanon and go on long voyages

The Chavin civilization arises in Peru

C. 880 BC The Assyrians of Northern Iraq begin to create a great empire

C. 800 BC

A new civilization arises in Greece

The Etruscan civilization arises in Italy

776 BC The first Olympic Games are held in Greece

C. 750 BC Rome is founded

C. 650 BC

The Celts introduce iron tools and weapons into Britain

The Chinese begin using iron

The Assyrian Empire is at its peak

620s BC The Assyrian Empire is split by civil war

612 BC A rebellion led by Babylon brings the Assyrian Empire to an end. The Babylonians then create their own empire.

C. 600 BC Hindu Civilization arises in India

C. 563 BC-483 BC Buddha lives

551-479 BC Kong-Fuzi or Confucius lives in China

559-529 BC Cyrus the Great founder of the Persian Empire reigns

550 BC Cyrus conquers Assyria

546 BC Cyrus conquers Lydia in Asia Minor

539 BC Babylon is captured by the Persians

525 BC The Persians conquer Egypt

490 BC The Greeks defeat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon

480 BC The Greeks defeat another Persian invasion

C. 840 BC The Phoenicians found Carthage in Tunisia

399 BC The Greek philosopher Socrates is condemned to death

391 BC The Romans defeat the Etruscans

C. 427-347 BC The Greek philosopher Plato lives

384-322 BC The Greek philosopher Aristotle lives

338 BC Philip of Macedon conquers Greece

334 BC Alexander the Great invades the Persian Empire

333 BC Alexander wins the Battle of Issus

332 BC Alexander conquers Egypt

330 BC Alexander controls all of the Persian Empire

323 BC Alexander dies and his general split his empire between them

C. 300 BC

The Dong Son civilization arises in South East Asia. It is known for its stone monuments and bronze work although the people also used iron.

273-236 BC The great Indian Emperor Asoka lives

264-241 BC The First Punic War between Rome and Carthage. Rome wins and gains Sicily.


The Second Punic War BC. The great Carthaginian general Hannibal leads an expedition through Spain over the Alps against Rome.

217 BC Hannibal crushes the Romans at Lake Trasimene

216 BC Hannibal crushes the Romans at Cannae

214 BC Work begins on the Great Wall of China

206 BC The Romans defeat the Carthaginians in Spain. They take control of southern Spain.

202 BC The Han dynasty is founded in China

200 BC The Chavin civilization in Peru collapses

171 BC - 138 BC Mithridates is king of Parthia. He conquers an empire in Persia.

149-146 BC The Third Punic War. Rome destroys Carthage.

135 BC Roman slaves in Sicily rebel but are defeated

89 BC All Italians are given Roman citizenship

63 BC Roman general Pompey captures Jerusalem

58-51 BC Julius Caesar conquers Gaul

49 BC Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon

44 BC Julius Caesar is assassinated

31 BC Octavian's fleet defeats the fleet of his rivals Mark Antony and Cleopatra

30 BC Egypt becomes a Roman province

C. 4 BC Jesus is born

C. 29 AD The crucifixion

43 AD The Romans invade Britain

C 45 AD Paul begins his missionary journeys

64 AD Most of Rome is destroyed by fire. Nero uses Christians as a scapegoat.

98-117 AD Trajan is Emperor of Rome. The Roman Empire reaches its peak.

220 AD The Han dynasty in China ends

224 AD In Persia a member of the Sassanid family kills the last Parthian king and founds the Sassanid Empire

284-305 AD Diocletian is emperor of Rome. In 286 he divides the empire into two halves, East and West.

313 AD Emperor Constantine tolerates Christianity

C. 400 AD Writing is introduced into Japan

407 AD Germanic tribes overrun Gaul

410 AD Led by Alaric the Goths capture Rome

434-453 AD Attila is king of the Huns

451 Attila the Hun is defeated at Chalons in France

455 AD The Vandals capture Rome

476 AD The Western Roman Empire ends completely (although it continues in the east)

The Ancient World