By Tim Lambert
Communications in Ancient Times
The first means of communication was, of course, the human voice but about 3,200 BC writing was invented in Iraq and Egypt. It was invented about 1,500 BC in China. Other civilizations in central America like the Mayans also invented systems of writing.
The next big step was the invention of the alphabet in what is now Israel and Lebanon about 1,600 BC.
In the Ancient World many civilizations including Egypt, Assyria, Persia, Rome, and China had efficient postal systems to deliver messages to parts of their empires using relays of horses.
In the Ancient World, people wrote on papyrus or parchment. However, the Chinese invented paper about 200 BC. The knowledge of how to make paper passed to the Arabs and in the Middle Ages, it reached Europe.
The next major improvement in communication was the invention of printing. The Chinese invented printing with blocks in the 6th century AD but the first known printed book was the Diamond Sutra of 686. In Europe, in the mid-15th century, Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press, which made books much cheaper and allowed newspapers to be invented. William Caxton introduced the printing press into England in 1476.
The first newspapers were printed in the 17th century. The first newspaper in England was printed in 1641. (However, the word newspaper was not recorded until 1670). The first successful daily newspaper in Britain was printed in 1702.
Meanwhile, European monarchs set up postal services to carry their messages. In France Louis XI founded one in 1477 and in England Henry VIII created the Royal Mail in 1512. In 1635 to raise money Charles I allowed private citizens to send messages by Royal Mail, for a fee.
Meanwhile the pencil was invented in 1564.
Communications in the 19th Century
Communication became far more efficient in the 19th century. In the early 19th century the recipient of a letter had to pay the postage, not the sender. Then in 1840, Rowland Hill invented the Penny Post. From then on the sender of a letter paid. Cheap mail made it much easier for people to keep in touch with loved ones who lived a long way off. In 1874 the Universal Postal Union was formed to coordinate postal services in different countries.
Meanwhile Ralph Wedgwood invented carbon paper in 1806.
The telegraph was invented in 1837. A cable was laid across the Channel in 1850 and after 1866 it was possible to send messages across the Atlantic.
Meanwhile, the first fax machine was invented in 1843. A Scot, Alexander
Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. The first telephone exchange in Britain opened in 1879. The first telephone directory in London was published in 1880. The first telephone line from Paris to Brussels was established in 1887. The first line from London to Paris opened in 1891. The first transatlantic telephone line opened in 1927. In 1930 a telephone link from Britain to Australia was established.
Meanwhile the first successful typewriter went on sale in 1874.
In 1829 Louis Braille invented an embossed typeface for the blind and in 1837 Isaac Pitman invented shorthand. The first successful rotary printing press was invented by Richard M Hoe in 1846.
Communications in The 20th Century
Communication continued to improve in the 20th century. In 1901 Marconi sent a radio message across the Atlantic. Radio broadcasting began in Britain in 1922 when the BBC was formed. By 1933 half the households in Britain had a radio. Following the 1972 Sound Broadcasting Act, independent radio stations were formed. In the 1990s new radio stations included Radio 5 Live (1990) and Classic FM (1991).
Television was invented in 1925 by John Logie Baird and the BBC began regular, high definition broadcasting in 1936. TV was suspended in Britain during World War II but it began again in 1946. TV first became common in the 1950s. A lot of people bought a TV set to watch the coronation of Elizabeth II and a survey at the end of that year showed that about one-quarter of households had one. By 1959 about two-thirds of homes had a TV. By 1964 the figure had reached 90% and TV had become the main form of entertainment – at the expense of cinema, which declined in popularity.
At first, there was only one TV channel in Britain but between 1955 and 1957 the ITV companies began broadcasting. BBC2 began in 1964 and Channel 4 began in 1982. Channel 5 began in 1997. In Britain, BBC2 began broadcasting in color in 1967, BBC 1, and ITV followed in 1969. Satellite television began in Britain in 1989.
Meanwhile, commercial TV began in the USA in 1941. TV began in Australia in 1956 and in New Zealand in 1960. Meanwhile, in 1960 the first communications satellite, Echo was launched. The laser printer was invented by Gary Starkweather in 1969.
Meanwhile in Britain telephones became common in people’s homes in the 1970s. In 1969 only 405 of British households had a phone but by 1979 the figure had reached 69%. Martin Cooper invented the first handheld first cell phone in 1973. The first mobile phone call in Britain was made in 1985. The first commercial text was sent in 1992. In Britain, smartphones were introduced in 1996.
Communications in The 21st Century
In the early 21st century the internet became an important form of communication. Today email has become one of the most popular methods of communication. In the 2010s ebook readers became common.
Last revised 2021