By Tim Lambert  In the 4th century, the Roman Empire split into two parts, east, and west. The western part eventually fell to the barbarians. They were people from central and northern Europe. Unfortunately, barbarian is a biased term. In the 5th century, they invaded the declining Roman Empire and they gradually carved it up… Continue reading A HISTORY OF THE BARBARIANS


By Tim Lambert The ancestors of the Vikings traded with the Romans. They exported furs, skins, walrus ivory, and amber. After the fall of Rome, the Scandinavian peoples slowly grew more united. The first towns were formed. Meanwhile, they started using sails. Before the mid-7th century, Scandinavian ships were rowed but once they began using… Continue reading A HISTORY OF THE VIKINGS

Ancient Britain

By Tim Lambert The Bronze Age At any rate, by 2,000 BCE English society was changed by the invention of Bronze. Metal artifacts appeared in England as early as 2,700 BCE although it is believed they were imported. By about 2,000 BCE bronze was being made in England. Bronze is made of 9 parts copper… Continue reading Ancient Britain

Ancient India

By Tim Lambert The Indus Valley Civilisation The first Indian civilization arose in the Indus valley about 2,600 BC. It actually straddled northwest India and Pakistan. By 6,500 BC the people of the area had begun farming. By 5,500 BC they had invented pottery. By about 2,600 BC a prosperous farming society had grown up.… Continue reading Ancient India


By Tim Lambert The First Japanese Human beings have lived in Japan for at least 30,000 years. During the last ice age, Japan was connected to mainland Asia by a land bridge and stone age hunters were able to walk across. When the ice age ended about 10,000 BC Japan became a group of islands.… Continue reading ANCIENT JAPAN


By Tim Lambert By 4000 BC there were stone age farmers living in Korea. By 1000 BC they had learned to use bronze. By about 300 BC they had learned to use iron to make tools and weapons. At first, Korea was divided into tribes but eventually organized kingdoms emerged. There were 3 of them,… Continue reading ANCIENT KOREA

Ancient Peru

By Tim Lambert By about 2,500 BC people in what is now, Peru began farming. By about 1,800 BC they were making pottery. The first South American civilization was the Chavin. It arose in what is now Peru in about 900 BC. The Chavin did not invent writing but they were skilled architects, stonemasons, potters,… Continue reading Ancient Peru


By Tim Lambert From about 900 BC a seafaring people called the Phoenicians who came from what is now Lebanon traded with what is now Spain. They founded a chain of trading settlements along the coast on islands and peninsulas. The Iberians gave the Phoenicians silver in return for wine and olive oil as well… Continue reading ANCIENT SPAIN


By Tim Lambert Buildings in Catal Huyuk Catal Huyuk was one of the world’s first towns. It was built in what is now Turkey about 6,500 BC not long after farming began. Catal Huyuk probably had a population of about 6,000. In Catal Huyuk, the houses were made of mud brick. Houses were built touching… Continue reading CATAL HUYUK