The Babylonians

By Tim Lambert The area that is now Iraq was once divided into city-states. One of them was called Babillu. (It was known to the Greeks as Babylon). For centuries Babylon was an unimportant city. However, under the famous leader Hammurabi (C. 1792 BC-1750 BC) Babylon rose to greatness. However, after his death, it declined… Continue reading The Babylonians

The Byzantine Empire

By Tim Lambert In the 4th century, the Roman Empire split into two halves, east, and west. The western part collapsed but the Eastern Roman Empire survived until the 15th century. It wasn’t called the Byzantine Empire while it existed. The name Byzantine Empire was invented in the 16th century, after its demise. Byzantium (today… Continue reading The Byzantine Empire

The Canaanites

By Tim Lambert In 1500 BC the land we now call Israel was divided into many small kingdoms. Each kingdom centered on a fortified city, which controlled the surrounding territory. One city-kingdom was Jericho, another was Ai.  In the Southwest of the country were the Philistines. It is believed the Philistines originally came from Crete.… Continue reading The Canaanites

The Druids

By Tim Lambert After about 650 BC a people called the Celts lived in England. The Celts had priests called Druids. The Druids were very important in Celtic society. As well as being priests they were scholars, judges, and advisers to the kings. The Celts were polytheists (they worshiped many gods and goddesses). They did… Continue reading The Druids

The Etruscans

By Tim Lambert The first civilization in Italy was the Etruscan, which arose about 800 BC. The Etruscans built cities on a grid pattern. Some these cities still exist (including Arezzo, Chiusi, Cortona, Perugia and Cerveteri). The Etruscans were also engineers who drained marshes and built roads. They were also skilled artists. The Etruscans made… Continue reading The Etruscans

The Farming Revolution

By Tim Lambert After 9,000 BC a great change came over the world. Previously humans lived by hunting animals and gathering plants. Then about 8,000 BC people began to grow wheat, barley, peas, and lentils instead of gathering them wild. By 7,000 BC they domesticated sheep, pigs, and goats. By 6,000 BC they also domesticated… Continue reading The Farming Revolution

The Hittites

By Tim Lambert  The Hittites lived in what is now Turkey. They moved to Turkey about 2,000 BC and at first, they were divided into separate states. However about 1,650 BC, they were united by King Labarnas. The Hittites were a powerful and warlike people. About 1595 BC they captured Babylon. Later the Hittites fought… Continue reading The Hittites

The Minoans

By Tim Lambert  The Minoan civilization existed on Crete. It was the first European civilization. About 2,500 BC a sophisticated society grew up on the island of Crete. By about 1,950 BC the inhabitants had invented a form of writing using hieroglyphs. This writing is called linear A. The Minoans were a bronze age civilization.… Continue reading The Minoans